英语词汇学习七种武器之五:具象化 - 英语教学法原著选读78(附导读、译文与家长指南)

武太白英语教学2018-06-18 14:57:26


以下“导读”、“家长指南”、“译文”均为武太白原创内容,英文原文节选、整理自上海外语教育出版社出版的《教学法丛书:词汇:描述、习得与教学》一书。



 


导读


上周我们读了《英语词汇学习七种武器之四:促进深层次理解 - 英语教学法原著选读77(附导读、译文与家长指南)》,文中指出,词汇学习与教学既要依靠不断重复的维持演练(maintenance rehearsal),也需要进行意义上不断深入的详述演练(elaboration rehearsal);穷举性的“此为何物”型练习、探究共同意义核心的“划掉不属于同类的词”型练习等都可以对此有所帮助。


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下面这段文字主要讲了:


1、如果能用图像方式对词汇进行学习与教学,能够提高学习效率,改善学习效果;


2、要注意用学生身边的、能够理解的现实事例对词汇进行解释说明,使词汇与学生的现实世界、真实生活取得联系,以促进理解和记忆;


3、不妨让学生自行制作促进学习的各类词汇学习工具,比如图片、图表等;


4、总之,关注意义,多进行联系、联想,注意不要发生联想混淆,就能更好地帮助学生学习词汇。


当然,具体内容要比上面的总结丰富、具体、生动得多。朋友们还有什么不明白的,欢迎留言哦!


家长指南


我们先来看看几幅图片:






朋友们看出来了吗?这是一位家长朋友耗时费力为孩子画的词汇、语法漫画。在这份爱心的背后,是家长高超的造型能力和扎实的语言基础。我不得不向这位朋友表示崇高的敬意,有这份心的人不少,能做到的人不多!


当然,我也不是说大家都要这样来画,这不容易,我也画不来;我是要说,大家可以跟孩子商量着来,发动孩子一起画。这样既密切了亲子关系,又促进了英语学习,岂不是一举两得?当然,这需要良好的亲子关系,有时不是一朝一夕能够做得到的。但只要对孩子有利,就值得去努力。加油!



原文 


Thesis Title: Current Trends in Vocabulary Teaching


Author: Anita J. Sokmen


Facilitate imaging and concreteness


According to the dual coding theory of human memory (Clark and Paivio), the mind contains a network of verbal and imaginal representations for words:


Learning foreign vocabulary. . . involves successive verbal and nonverbal representations that are activated during initial study of the word pairs and during later efforts to retrieve the translations. (1991: 157)


When learners image to-be-learned material, the possibility for later recall is much greater than if they only make verbal links. To build verbal representations in the memory instructors need to present vocabulary in an organized manner. Since it is harder to memorize random material, arrange vocabulary in units, introduce it in stages, and summarize. To build non-verbal representations, elaborate: make illustrations, show pictures, draw diagrams, and list details. Capitalizing on verbal and non-verbal links appears to be worthwhile; however, a word of caution is necessary regarding which words are initially presented together. If the linked words or representations include both similar and different features, such as in the case of antonyms, cross-association may take place. This may result in the words actually being more difficult to learn (Higa, 1963).


Another aspect of the dual coding theory is that learning is aided when material is made concrete (psychologically 'real’) within the conceptual range of the learners. This may mean giving personal examples, relating words to current events, providing experiences with the words, comparing them to real life or better yet, having students create these images and relate the words to their own lives. This tapping into past experience is an important part of the dual coding theory. In a study of ESL students’ word associations, Sokmen (1993) found that the majority of associations were those which reflected strong memories, attitudes, or feelings, that is, that words appeared to be stored with images of past experiences. Vocabulary instruction which relates new vocabulary to past experience has the potential of enhancing memory. Clark and Paivio (op. cit.) maintain that imaging and concreteness create powerful, integrated verbal and nonverbal memory links, which are reintegrated each time the word is evoked.


译文


促进成像与具体化(具象化)


根据人类记忆的双重编码理论(克拉克和培韦奥),大脑包含着一个词汇的言语和想象呈现网络:


学习外语词汇……涉及连续的言语和想象呈现,能够通过成对单词的最初学习加以激活,并通过此后重新提取翻译的努力加以激活。(1991:157)


如果学习者能够把要学习的材料加以图像化,则后续成功回想的可能性要比仅生成语言链接要大得多。要在记忆中形成言语呈现,教学者需要以有组织的方式呈现词汇。由于随机材料的记忆难度更大,要把词汇按照单元加以安排,分阶段介绍,并加以总结。要形成非语言呈现,就要进行详述:要做插图,展示图片,绘制图表,列出细节。充分利用言语、非言语链接看起来是值得的;然而,对于那些词应该在初始教学中共同呈现,还有必要提个醒。如果联系起来的词或呈现既有相似的特征,又有不同的特点,比如反义词就是这样,则有可能发生联想混淆,而这可能导致生词实际上更难学了(海加,1963)。


双重编码理论的另一方面是,材料在学习者的概念范畴内得到具体化(心理上“真实”)的时候,就能促进学习。这可能意味着要给出个人化的例子,把单词和时事结合起来,提供与单词相关的经历,把单词与现实生活相比拟,或者,更好的办法是,让学生来创建这些意象,把单词和他们自己的生活联系在一起。这种利用过去经验的做法是双重编码理论重要的一方面。在对ESL学生单词联想的一项研究中,索克曼(1993)发现,大部分联想都反映了较强的记忆、态度或情感,即,单词看来是和过去经验的景象存储在一起的。能够把新词汇和过去经验挂起钩来的词汇教学有加强记忆的潜能。克拉克和培韦奥(同上)认为,图像化、具象化能够创建强大的、整合的言语、非言语记忆链接,单词每回想一次,这些链接就重新得到一次整合。